Daily Quiz Answers: 51 to 100
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.100 – You are the Arbiter!
A team captain in the B&DCL wishes to postpone a match. What is the correct process?
A) S/he must give 5 days notice to the League Controller and then advise the opposing team captain.
B) S/he must give 5 days notice to the opposing team captain and then advise the League Controller.
C) S/he must give 7 days notice to the League Controller and then advise the opposing team captain.
D) S/he must give 7 days notice to the opposing team captain and then advise the League Controller..
E) S/he must give notice to both the League Controller and opposing team captain within the required 5 day or 7 days notice period as stipulated within the B&DCL League Club Tournament Rules.
B&DCL League Club Tournament Rules No.5 – Fixtures – ‘Matches should be played on the dates fixed by the League Controller and published in the league fixture lists. In exceptional circumstances a team may contact the League Controller to seek permission to rearrange a match. Permission will only be given if there is a substantial reason. If permission is granted, the club wishing to change the fixture date must give at least 5 days’ notice and suggest an alternative date to the opposing team.’
It is expected and good etiquette that the League Controller is notified first to seek permission (if there is are exceptional circumstances) and then the opposing team captain (to offer a revised date), both within 5 days.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.99 – International Chess
Which chess player said ‘pawns are the soul of chess’?
A) Ruy Lopez
B) Howard Staunton
C) Gioachino Greco
D) François-André Danican Philidor
E) Emmanuel Lasker
Philidor was an 18th century chess player (and concert level musician) who was a long way ahead of most of his contemporaries, and was one of the first to realise the value of pawn chains. He wrote what was then by far the most advanced chess book ever seen, Analyse du jeu des Échecs, which contained opening analysis, middlegame advice and endgame analysis that still holds good today, including analysis of Rook and Bishop versus Rook – see question Quiz 91!
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.98 – National Chess
Since the competition started which UK player has won the World Chess Solving Championship most times?
A) John Nunn
B) Jonathan Mestel
C) Jon Speelman
D) Matthew Sadler
E) Michael Stean
John Nunn has won it 3 times in 2004, 2007 and 2010. Jonathan Mestel has won it once in 1997.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.97 – Local Chess
The Dorset Championship Trophy is the oldest trophy but when did we have our first ever winner?
It was first won by D H Napper in 1929 who also retained it in 1931, We are not sure why the event wasn’t held in 1930. He then won it again in 1948.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.96 – Chess Laws / Trivia
Name the most recent World Champion whom Fischer has beaten in a tournament or match chess.
A) Boris Spassky
B) Anatoly Karpov
C) Garry Kasparov
D) Vishy Anand
E) Alexander Khalifman
Fischer beat Spassky (pictured) in the famous World Chess Championship match in 1972, then again in 1992, playing no public chess match in the intervening period or since.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.95 – You are the Arbiter!
Following a decision made on the game by the arbiter, player A reluctantly but politely shakes hands with player B, and both scoresheets have been signed by players A and B. However, within the next 5 minutes (and before the start of the next round) player A reflects on events and wishes to appeal. What do you do?
A) Dismiss the claim as the Arbiter’s decision has already been made.
B) Dismiss the claim as both players have shaken hands.
C) Dismiss the claim as both players have signed both scoresheets.
D) Dismiss the claim as both players have shaken hands and signed the scoresheets.
E) Allow the claim.
FIDE Rule 11.10 – Unless the regulations of an event specify otherwise, a player may appeal against any decision of the arbiter, even if the player has signed the scoresheet (see Article 8.7).
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.94 – International Chess
After the title of World Chess Champion was made official, two people have become undisputed world champion without defeating the previous champion in a title match (this question excludes the period 1993 – 2005 when the title was split). Who are they?
A) Jose Raul Capablanca
B) Mikhail Botvinnik
C) Vassily Smyslov
D) Anatoly Karpov
E) Vladimar Kramnik
Answer: B and D
Alekhine died in 1946 whilst still champion. Botvinnik won the title at the 1948 tournament of the leading contenders.
Karpov became champion in 1975 when Fischer refused to defend his title when an agreement could not be reached with FIDE over one of the conditions for the match. Under FIDE rules, this resulted in Karpov, who had won the qualifying Candidates’ cycle, being named the new world champion by default.
(Karpov also became the FIDE champion for a second time without winning a match when the title was split. In the FIDE candidates semi-finals of 1992 Short defeated Karpov and Timman defeated Yusopov. Short went on to defeat Timman in the final to earn the right to play the champion, Kasparov. At this point Short and Kasparov broke away from FIDE. In 1993 FIDE arranged a match between Karpov and Timman to decide the champion, which Karpov won. Karpov became FIDE champion having never beaten the previous holder, Kasparov.)
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.93 – National Chess
The European Senior 50+ Chess Championship has been held since 2014. Who is the only British player to have won it?
A) Keith Arkell
B) Mark Hebden
C) John Nunn
D) Jonathan Speelman
E) Nigel Short
Keith Arkell (picutred) won it in Porto, Portugal in 2014. In the same year he came equal first in the World Senior Chess Championship but lost out on tie-break.
John Nunn came 2nd in Eretria, Greece in 2015.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.92 – Local Chess
Which club won the B&DCL Division One Championship 4 times in 5 years in the 1980s?
Oakmeadians won the B&DCL Division One Championship in 1985, 1986, 1987 and 1989. It had a strong squad of players including Ian Clark, Michael Freeman, Reg Valentine, Eddie Barker, Mike Roth, Terry Simms, Paul Colmer, Steve Crisp, David Cannings and Steve Culleton
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.91 – Chess Laws / Trivia
The longest official game of chess (excluding any online game) lasted how many moves?
I Nikolic v G Arsovic, Belgrade 1989
An endgame was reached on move 37 and then a R+B endgame by move 50 (with some pawns) with the last pawn being captured on move 167 resulting in a R+B v R endgame. At the time this game was played, FIDE had modified the 50 move rule to allow 100 moves to be played without a piece being captured in a rook and bishop versus rook endgame, the situation in Nikolić versus Arsović. FIDE has since rescinded that modification to the rule.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.90 – You are the Arbiter!
As arbiter, you notice that a digital clock clearly shows player A has run out of time. What do you do?
A) Award the game to player B as this ends the game – no discussion.
B) To be seen as conciliatory, allow player A to explain why they might have not lost but then award the game to player B.
C) Not to award the game to player B immediately as the clock might be faulty.
D) Not to award the game to player B immediately but to check the scoresheets first.
E) Not to get involved unless the players request you to do so.
FIDE Rule 6.3.1 – When using a chessclock, each player must complete a minimum number of moves or all moves in an allotted period of time including any additional amount of time with each move.
FIDE Rule 6.4 – Immediately after a flag falls, the requirements of Article 6.3.1 must be checked. Digital clocks may incorrectly show a loss on time because players did not press the clock after every move.
If the arbiter is present, s/he would be expected to take the initiative.
It is not standard practice to check the clock after the game as this should have been done before.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.89 – International Chess
Which famous international player once said ‘ If you wish to succeed, you must brave the risk of failure’?
A) Bobby Fischer
B) Anatoly Karpov
C) Garry Kasparov
D) Vishy Anand
E) Nigel Short
Kasparov is well known for his combative style and willingness to take risks.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.88 – National Chess
Who has been the highest ever rated UK female chess player?
A) Jana Bellin
B) Susan Lalic
C) Jovanka Houska
D) Harriet Hunt
E) Ketevan Arakhamia-Grant
Arakhamia-Grant (Scotland) achieved a FIDE rating of 2506 in 2009, the only UK female chess player to be rated over 2500. She switched her registration to Scotland from Georgia in 2008.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.87 – Local Chess
How many times has Ringwood won the B&DCL and Dorset League Division One Championships?
D) Three times
E) Four times
Ringwood won the Dorset League Division One Championship in 2019. It has never won the B&DCL Division One Championship.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.86 – Chess Laws / Trivia
Which past or present World Champion has a massive stamp collection?
A) Boris Spassky
B) Anatoly Karpov
C) Vishy Anand
D) Vladimir Kramnik
E) Magnus Carlsen
Anatoly Karpov is reported to have 400,000 stamps in his collection.
Magnus Carlsen is probably the unlikeliest answer as he prefers a wide range of sports and physical activities.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.85 – You are the Arbiter!
In which of these forms of chess can the arbiter call a flag fall?
A) Standard (classical) game
B) Rapid game
C) Blitz game
D) All three of the above
E) None of the above
FIDE Rule 8.5.1 – If neither player keeps score under Article 8.4, the arbiter or an assistant should try to be present and keep score. In this case, immediately after a flag has fallen the arbiter shall stop the chessclock.
FIDE Rapid Rule A.4.5 – The arbiter shall also call a flag fall, if he observes it.
FIDE Blitz Rules – Play shall be governed by the Rapid chess Laws as in Article A.2 and A.4.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.84 – International Chess
Question: Which famous international player once said … ‘There are two types of sacrifices: correct ones and mine’?
A) Alexander Alekhine
B) Mikhail Tal
C) Bobby Fischer
D) Garry Kasparov
E) Nigel Short
Mikhail Tal is regarded as one of the best attacking players of all time and always had an eye for a sacrifice
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.83 – National Chess
Who was the youngest ever British Ladies Chess Champion?
A) Rowena Mary Bruce
B) Elaine Zelia Pritchard
C) Jana Hartston
D) Susan Arkell
E) Jovanka Houska
Elaine Zelia Pritchard, née Saunders won the British Ladies Championship at the age of 13 in 1939. The event took place in Bournemouth! Rowena Mary Bruce Bruce was 18 when she first won it in 1937, Jana Hartston was 22 when she first won it in 1970, Susan Arkell was 20 when she first won it in 1986 and Jovanka Houska was 28 when she first won it in 2008.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.82 – Local Chess
Who has been the longest serving DCCA President?
A) Mr A F Thomas
B) Joe Anderson
C) Frank Kingdon
D) Chris Johns
E) Ian Clark
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.81 – Chess Laws / Trivia
What is the normal letter used for a knight by people who are serious about chess problems and endgame studies?
Its the letter S, representing Springer which is the German name for a chess knight.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.80 – You are the Arbiter!
Player A complains to you that their opponent, player B, always responds to Player’s A move before writing it down. What do you do?
A) Tell player A this is allowed.
B) Ask for the clocks to be stopped so the facts can be established.
C) Monitor the game to see if it happens again then take any necessary action.
D) Give player B a warning not to do it again.
E) Give player B a warning not to do it again and award player A an extra two minutes.
FIDE Rule 8.1.3 – A player may reply to his opponent’s move before recording it, if he so wishes. He must record his previous move before making another.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.79 – International Chess
Which player beat Bobby Fischer’s record to become (at the time) the youngest IM in history?
A) Garry Kasparov
B) Nigel Short
C) Jan Tinman
D) Gata Kamsky
E) Anatoly Karpov
He became (at the time) the youngest International Master in chess history at the age of 14, by scoring 8/15 in the Hastings Premier in 1979/80, breaking Bobby Fischer’s record from 1958
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.78 – National Chess
Perhaps England’s greatest ever team achievement was when it won the European Team Championship but what was the year?
A) 1980 (Skara)
B) 1983 (Plovdiv)
C) 1989 (Haifa)
D) 1992 (Debrecen)
E) 1997 (Pula)
The winning team consisted of Nigel Short, Mickey Adams, Jonathan Spielman, Matthew Saddler and Julian Hodgson. Saddler scored 7 out of 9 on board 4.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.76 – Chess Laws and Trivia
Which of the following permanently prevents castling?
A) The king is in check.
B) A rook has moved.
C) The rook involved is attacked.
D) The king has moved.
E) The king would currently cross a square that is attacked.
Providing the king and rook involved have not yet moved, even if they cannot currently castle (due to either them or the squares the king might cross over being attacked) they may do so in the future. B is not correct as there are two rooks and the king might still be able to castle with the other rook.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.75 – You are the Arbiter!
You notice when walking around the tournament hall that in one game, both flags have fallen yet the required number of moves have not been played. What do you do?
A) As neither player has made the required number of moves and it cannot be determined whose flag has fallen first then both players lose on time.
B) Let the players decide whose flag has fallen first as they are more likely to have a better idea.
C) Black wins as White’s flag must have fallen first.
D) Award a draw.
E) Whoever is on the move with their clock ticking wins as the other player’s flag must have fallen first.
A draw is awarded if it cannot be determined whose flag has fallen first and if the required number of moves have not been played. You cannot have both players losing. Options C and E may suggest that one player’s flag may have fallen first but the flag fall may have gone unnoticed for more than one move.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.74 – International Chess
Who is the only player to have drawn all their games in a Candidates Tournament?
A) Anatoly Karpov
B) Tigran Petrosian
C) Anish Giri
D) Levon Aronian
E) Sergey Karjakin
Anish Giri achieved this ‘immortality’ status in 2016 as a 21 year old. I am sure we can find a local chess player equivalent!
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.73 – National Chess
Question: In its 116 year history, which town / city has held the British Chess Championships the most times?
Torquay has been very popular recently being host on six occasions in 1982, 1998, 2002, 2009, 2013 & 2019. The Riviera Centre in Torquay was also scheduled to be the host in 2020 until Lockdown but no fear, all being well, the British Championships will return there in 2021.
Hastings, Scarborough and Brighton have each been the host town on five occasions with Swansea on four occasions.
Bournemouth has been the host town on three occasions in 1936 (Mens), 1939 (Ladies) and, as we all know, in 2016.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.72 – Local Chess
Which decade was the Ringwood Chess Club formed?
Ringwood Chess Club was formed on the 6th October 1959 when, at the invitation of Peter Fowler, 10 chess players attended its first AGM.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.71 – Chess Laws and Trivia
During tournament play, the player is not allowed to leave the ‘playing venue’. What is the ‘playing venue’ normally defined as?
A) The playing area. smoking area and toilets.
B) The playing area, toilets, smoking area, refreshment areas (need permission to use the rest rooms).
C) The playing area, toilets, smoking area, rest rooms (need permission to use the refreshment areas).
D) The playing area, toilets, rest rooms, refreshment areas (need permission to use the smoking area).
E) The playing area, toilets, smoking area, rest rooms, refreshment areas.
FIDE Rule 11.2.1 – The ‘playing venue’ is defined as the ‘playing area’, rest rooms, toilets, refreshment area, area set aside for smoking and other places as designated by the arbiter.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.70 – You are the Arbiter!
If noticed by the Arbiter or opposing player, what penalty should be imposed on a player, who is not in check, who then touches a his rook first when castling?
A) The player should be given a warning immediately.
B) The player should be given a warning after the game.
C) The player should be made to move the rook and not allowed to castle.
D) As well as any of the answers above, the opponent should be given two extra minutes.
E) There should be no penalty and the castling move is allowed to stand.
FIDE Rule 4.4.2 [If a player having the move] deliberately touches a rook and then his king he is not allowed to castle on that side on that move and the situation shall be governed by Article 4.3.1.
FIDE Rule 4.3 Except as provided in Article 4.2, if the player having the move touches on the chessboard, with the intention of moving or capturing: 4.3.1 one or more of his own pieces, he must move the first piece touched that can be moved
However, Anatoly Karpov, ex-World Champion, once got away with it as shown on the following link! In this 23 second clip, his opponent, Ian Nepomniachtchi, questions what he thinks he just saw then shrugs his shoulder and plays on!
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.69 – International Chess
In which important match did the organisers have to put a board under the table between the players to stop them kicking each other.
A) Fischer v Spassky 1972
B) Petrosian v Korchnoi 1977
C) Karpov v Korchnoi 1978
D) Kasparov v Karpov 1984
E) Kramnik v Topalov 2006
Petrosian and Korchnoi were not on friendly terms.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.68 – National Chess
Which of these noted British chess players worked at Bletchley Park during WWII?
A) James Aitken
B) CHO’D Alexander
C) Harry Golombek
D) Stuart Milner-Barry
E) All of the above
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.67 – Local Chess
When was the first Dorchester Chess Jamboree organised?
Yeovil were the worthy winners.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.66 – Chess Laws / Trivia
When promoting a pawn which of the following should happen?
A) The pawn has to be placed on the 8th rank then replaced by the promoting piece.
B) The promoting piece has to be placed on the 8th rank and then the pawn is placed on the 8th rank before removal.
C) Either A or B above can be done for the move to be legal.
D) The pawn does not have to be placed on the 8th rank but it has to be removed first before the promoting piece is placed on the 8th rank.
E) Neither does the pawn need to be placed on the 8th rank nor does it have to be removed first before the promoting piece is placed on the 8th rank.
FIDE Rule 4.6.1 – the pawn does not have to be placed on the square of arrival.
FIDE Rule 4.6.2 – removing the pawn and putting the new piece on the square of promotion may occur in any order
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.65 – You are the Arbiter!
Player A claims a draw by repetition. Player B repeatedly refuses to help in the reconstruction. What do you do?
A) Check the claim with Player A only.
B) Award the draw without checking as Player B is not willing to disprove it.
C) Default player B for not complying with the Laws. Player A is awarded the draw claimed.
D) Default player B for not complying with the Laws. Player A is awarded a win
E) As both players are in dispute, ask the players to continue to play.
FIDE Rule 11.11 – Both players must assist the arbiter in any situation requiring reconstruction of the game, including draw claims.
FIDE Rule 11.7 – Persistent refusal by a player to comply with the Laws of Chess shall be penalised by loss of the game. The arbiter shall decide the score of the opponent
The game is not complete and the behaviour of player B is unacceptable and against the laws, therefore the Arbiter can default player B and award the game to player A.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.64 – International Chess
Garry Kasparov’s name was changed when he was young. What was his name at birth?
A) Mikhail Kasparov
B) Vasilly Kasparov
C) Garry Kasparian
D) Mikhail Kasparian
E) Garik Weinstein
There is some debate about what the English version of his first name was, with variously Harry, Gary, Garik and Garryk being quoted but everyone agrees his surname was Weinstein.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.63 – National Chess
The British Chess Championships were held in Bournemouth in 2016 but when were they previously last held in Bournemouth?
There was an 80 year gap between the two British Chess Championships help in Bournemouth. The first time was in 1936 when there was an outbreak of typhoid in Bournemouth, Poole and Christchurch. Doctors began to see people with symptoms from 4th August onwards. In total 718 cases were reported, 51 people died locally and 20 people died elsewhere, mainly visitors who had returned home. The outbreak was caused by contaminated milk. It just shows how fevers can spread!
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.62 – Local Chess
For how many years did the Bournemouth Grand Chess Congress run?
The Bournemouth Grand Chess Congress ran from 2012 to 2015 and all excess income went towards sponsoring the British Chess Championships in Bournemouth in 2016.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.60 – You are the Arbiter!
The rules at a weekend tournament do not specify a default start time. The time control is all your moves in one hour 30 minutes plus 30 second increments. One player turns up 15 minutes after the start of the next round. What do you do?
A) The default time is zero minutes so the player is defaulted.
B) The default time is zero minutes so the player would normally be defaulted but the Arbiter has the final say.
C) There is a default time of 30 minutes so the player is allowed to play.
D) There is a default time of one hour so the player is allowed to play.
E) There is a default time of one hour less than the core base time so the player is allowed to play
FIDE Rule 6.7.1 – The regulations of an event shall specify a default time in advance. If the default time is not specified, then it is zero. Any player who arrives at the chessboard after the default time shall lose the game unless the arbiter decides otherwise.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.59 – International Chess
Which Grandmaster has expressed strongly that delivering stalemate should result in a win not a draw and caused Chessbase to publish an article examining the topic:
A) Victor Korchnoi
B) Magnus Carlsen
C) Alexander Morozevich
D) Nigel Short
E) Loek van Wely
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.58 – National Chess
Which British chess player is the subject of the chess book ‘It’s Only Me’?
A) Raymond Keene
B) John Nunn
C) Tony Miles
D) Mickey Adams
E) Nigel Short
Compiled by Geoff Lawson, it was the chess book that Tony Miles should have written before his premature death at the age of 46 in 2001. The book’s title ‘It’s Only Me’ is an anagram of Tony Miles!
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.57 – Local Chess
Which current member of Southbourne Chess Club was also present on its opening night in 1974?
A) Russ Pegg
B) Jon Catchpole
C) Frank Hamilton-Taylor
D) John Harris
E) Martin Simons
The founding members of Southbourne Chess Club were John Harris, George Boardman, Ben Goodman, Arthur Thorrington, Ernie Weetman and Vivian McDermott who all responded to an advert placed in a local paper by George Kilmister and they all played in the first season. John is the club’s current Webmaster and is as active today as he was 46 years ago.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.56 – Chess Laws / Trivia
When is a player allowed to write a move down on their scoresheet before it is played?
B) All the time
C) Before claiming a draw by the same position appearing 3 times.
D) Before claiming a draw under the 50 move rule.
E) Before claiming a draw as noted in both C and D above.
FIDE Rule 8.1.2 – It is forbidden to write the moves in advance, unless the player is claiming a draw according to Article 9.2 (same position appearing 3 times), or 9.3 (50 move rule) or adjourning a game according to Guidelines I. 1 .1.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.55 – You are the Arbiter!
In the last round of a tournament, the game on top board starts with 1.h4 and White offers Black a draw which is accepted as this means both players are joint winners. What do you do?
A) Accept the draw but the game is not rated.
B) Accept the draw and the game is rated.
C) Give Black the point as White was not allowed to offer the draw.
D) Tell both players the game is not valid and the Arbiter may choose from a host of actions.
E) Tell both players the draw is not valid and the current game continues.
Answer: D (although E might be possible if this is what the Arbiter decides)
FIDE Rule 5.2.3 – The game is drawn upon agreement between the two players during the game, provided both players have made at least one move.
In addition FIDE Rule 9.1.1 states that ‘The regulations of an event may specify that players cannot offer or agree to a draw, whether in less than a specified number of moves or at all, without the consent of the arbiter’ so even if the players have played say 10 moves the draw offer may still not be valid.
In practice the Arbiter might advise the players to play a proper game.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.54 – International Chess
Who produced a bottle of urine during a post game press conference at a Candidates tournament?
A) Alexander Grischuk
B) Nigel Short
C) Vasyl Ivanchuk
D) Bobby Fischer
E) Tony Miles
The background is that at the Berlin Candidates tournament in 2018 there was only one toilet for the players, a matter made worse by the fact that some non-players were also using it. Grischuk was critical of this after the first couple of rounds but apparently solved it by bringing a large plastic bottle with him to later rounds. He was asked at the press conference after round 5 what was in his plastic bag and in front of the world press pulled out the bottle over half full of urine.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.53 – National Chess
What is Private Eye magazine’s nickname for Raymond Keene which has gained traction in some chess circles?
A) The Joker
B) The Penguin
C) The Riddler
D) Poison Ivy
E) The Scarecrow
Private Eye has written a series of articles about Keene’s alleged plagiarism and issues surrounding his Brain Games company and along the way nicknamed him ‘The Penguin’.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.52 – Local Chess
We currently have 10 clubs participating in our two local chess leagues but how many clubs were there 25 years ago?
There were 20 clubs in 1995. These were Abbey Life, Barclays, Bournemouth, DSS, Dorchester, Frizzells, Highcliffe, Kinson, Lymington, Lytchett Matravers, Merck, New Milton, Oakdale, Parkstone, Ringwood, St Peters School, Siemens Plessey, Southbourne, Weymouth and Wimborne.
The clubs highlighted (plus Poole and Purbeck) are the active 10 clubs today.
Test Your Chess Knowledge No.51 – Chess Laws / Trivia
In which century was stalemate standardised as a draw?
Before the 19th century, the treatment of stalemate varied greatly and including being a win for the player who gave stalemate, a loss for that player and the move not being permitted.